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Understanding love: Communication and attachment styles

Discover the key to healthy relationships: understanding communication & attachment styles. Strengthen your love bonds today.

Relationship Expert Amy Clark August 1, 2023 • 23 minutes read
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It goes without saying; navigating romantic relationships can be challenging. But understanding how communication and attachment styles shape a relationship can help you navigate these complexities and deepen your understanding of love. 1

Knowing how to communicate with a partner helps us build relationships that thrive. Effective communication includes more than just talking about your feelings; it also involves learning to listen and trust your partner. 2

Let’s explore how these dynamics impact love, trust, and intimacy, empowering you to build a more fulfilling partnership.

Unlock the key to relationship success. Learn why communication is crucial in maintaining healthy and harmonious relationships.

Why understanding communication & attachment styles is essential

Why understanding communication & attachment styles is essential

How you communicate with a partner can profoundly impact the quality of your relationship. This includes verbal communication, body language, and non-verbal cues. 3

Because communication is a two-way street, understanding how your partner communicates won’t only benefit both of you. It can also help you identify improvement areas, so your relationship can grow and develop further. 4

Here are the reasons why understanding communication and attachment styles is essential:

1. It fosters an atmosphere of openness and honesty in the relationship

Openness and honesty are cornerstones of any successful relationship. It’s important to feel safe and secure in your partnership, knowing that whatever issue can be addressed openly and honestly. 5

Because you’ll both be comfortable expressing yourselves, it’s easier to understand each other’s feelings and needs. This helps the relationship to stay healthy, as you won’t be second-guessing one another.

2. It builds trust between partners

Trust is key in any relationship; when we trust each other, we are more likely to feel accepted and loved by our partners. That sense of security is essential for a strong and healthy relationship. 6

Building trust takes time, but understanding each other’s communication styles can help to speed up the process. Knowing how and why your partner communicates in specific ways will give you peace of mind, making it easier to understand their intentions.

3. Encourages a healthy level of emotional vulnerability

When it comes to love, emotional vulnerability is essential. Being emotionally vulnerable helps to create a deeper level of intimacy between you and your partner, allowing you to connect on a deeper level. 7

Understanding each other’s communication styles can help build this sense of closeness. For example, if your partner is naturally more reserved than you, you can be more mindful of their needs and feelings. This will help create a strong bond based on mutual understanding and respect.

4. Resolution of disagreements becomes smoother

Conflicts are inevitable in any relationship, but how you communicate when disagreements arise is key to keeping your relationship healthy. Understanding and respecting each other’s communication styles can help you resolve issues calmly and respectfully. 8 9

Understanding our partner’s needs makes it easier to come to terms with disagreements without arguing or hurting one another. And learning how to compromise will also help you to navigate any conflicts without damaging your relationship. 10

5. It helps you to express love in ways that your partner will appreciate

When we understand how our partners communicate, it makes it easier to express and receive love. We can be more mindful of our partner’s feelings and needs, allowing us to express our love in ways that are meaningful for them.

For example, if your partner is more of a touchy-feely type, you can be more intentional about offering physical affection. This will help show your love in ways your partner will appreciate and understand. 11

6. Understanding and adapting to your communication styles can deepen the connection between you

Knowing your partner’s communication style can make expressing yourself and understanding their intentions easier. This helps you both feel connected, enabling you to develop deeper understanding and intimacy.

Your connection can grow exponentially because you’re both on the same page. This will help to strengthen your relationship, creating a strong bond that is more fulfilling and meaningful for both of you.

7. It encourages a balanced approach to communication

Balancing your communication styles is important for any relationship. One partner dominating the conversation can lead to resentment and tension.

So, it’s important to be mindful of each other’s needs. That means taking time to listen and learning how to compromise. This will ensure that both of you feel respected and appreciated in the relationship.

Understanding communication and attachment styles is an essential component of any successful relationship. Understanding each other’s needs can build stronger relationships based on mutual trust and respect. This will help deepen your connection, allowing you to enjoy a more fulfilling partnership.


What affects how we communicate with our partner?

What affects how we communicate with our partner?

Communication styles vary from person to person, but certain factors can impact how we communicate with our partners. These important factors make it easier to understand your partner’s communication style and how you can adapt to them.

1. Our communication style

Our background and values determine our communication style. We tend to take on the communication styles that we see around us from an early age; if both of your parents were passive communicators, it’s likely that you, too, will take on a more passive style.

The main communication styles are:

  1. Passive: A passive communicator avoids confrontation and tries to keep the peace. They may try to please everyone or avoid speaking up for fear of being judged or offending someone.
  2. Aggressive: An aggressive communicator is direct and confrontational. They may be blunt and use words that come across as harsh or attacking.
  3. Passive-aggressive: A passive-aggressive communicator uses subtle, indirect tactics to express anger or displeasure. They may use sarcasm or be vague to avoid addressing an issue head-on.
  4. Assertive: An assertive communicator speaks openly and honestly while respecting the other person’s opinion. This communication style is direct but respectful, allowing the speaker to express themselves without appearing aggressive or passive.

Strengthen your relationship by understanding communication styles. Explore the 4 unique approaches for better connections.

How to find out your communication style

Understanding your communication style is the first step toward improving your romantic relationships. There are several methods you can use to discover your communication style.

  1. Self-reflection: Take some time to reflect on your past interactions and communication patterns. Think about how you respond to different situations, whether you tend to be assertive, passive, or somewhere in between.
  2. Personality assessments: Consider taking personality assessments that delve into communication styles, such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) or the DISC assessment. These tools can offer valuable insights into your preferences, strengths, and potential areas for growth in communication.
  3. Seek feedback: Don’t hesitate to seek feedback from your partner, friends, or family. They may provide valuable observations about your communication tendencies that you might not be aware of. Honest and constructive feedback can be a powerful personal growth and relationship improvement tool.

Understanding your communication style can take time and effort, but it is worth the investment. Ultimately, it can strengthen your relationships and create deeper understanding and intimacy.

How to figure out your partner’s communication style

If you want to communicate effectively with your partner, it’s also essential to understand their communication style. Here are some tips on how to figure out your partner’s communication style:

  1. Observe their behavior: Consider how your partner communicates in various situations. Note whether they tend towards passiveness, aggressiveness, or assertiveness.
  2. Ask questions: Have an open and honest conversation about communication styles. Discuss what works for both of you and how you can improve your communication in the future.
  3. Experiment: Try out different methods of communication to see which ones are most successful with your partner. This will help you find a balance between passivity and aggression that works for both of you.

Understanding and adapting to your partner’s communication style is vital. With practice, you’ll be able to find a style of communication that works for both of you.

Tips on how to handle different communication styles

Handling different communication styles in your romantic relationship requires understanding, patience, and adaptability. Recognizing that you and your partner may have distinct ways of expressing yourselves and processing information is crucial for fostering effective communication.

Here are some tips to navigate these differences and strengthen your bond:

  1. Practice active listening: Active listening involves paying attention to your partner’s words, body language, and tone of voice. It allows you to better understand their feelings and needs and respond in a supportive way. 12
  2. Be respectful: Even if you have different communication styles, it is important to respect each other’s opinions. Always strive to be understanding and open-minded when having difficult conversations.
  3. Establish boundaries: Healthy relationships require both partners to establish clear boundaries. When it comes to communication, decide what topics are off-limits and be sure not to cross them.
  4. Compromise: Finding a balance between your communication style and your partner’s can take some work, but it is worth it. Work together to find solutions that make you feel heard and understood. 13

By staying mindful of your communication styles, you can have more meaningful conversations with your partner and create a deeper connection.

2. Our personality type

Our personality type is also influential in our romantic relationships. Personality assessments like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) are powerful tools to help us understand our communication style and how it affects our relationships.

The MBTI measures four different personality traits: Introversion (I) or Extroversion (E), Intuition (N) or Sensing (S), Thinking (T) or Feeling (F), and Judging (J) or Perceiving (P). These four traits provide insights into how we perceive and interact with the world.

The four subcategories of the MBTI are the following:

  1. Analysts: Analysts are logical and detail-oriented and often prefer to approach challenges systematically. They tend to focus on the big picture without getting distracted by minor details.
  2. Diplomats: Diplomats are compassionate and empathetic. They can easily relate to others and have strong interpersonal skills.
  3. Sentinels: Sentinels are practical and reliable. They tend to be organized and are comfortable with the routine.
  4. Explorers: Explorers are adventurous and independent. They enjoy exploring new possibilities and taking risks.

Knowing your MBTI type can help you gain a better understanding of how you communicate in relationships, as well as how your partner communicates differently from you. This knowledge can help you better navigate any disagreements and foster mutual understanding.

Unravel the mysteries of personality types in romance. Learn how understanding the 16 types can lead to lasting love.

How to find out your personality type

Discovering your personality type can be a fascinating self-awareness and personal growth journey. To find out your personality type, follow these steps:

  1. Take the MBTI assessment: Start by taking the official Myers-Briggs Type Indicator assessment, which consists of questions designed to understand your preferences in different scenarios. The assessment categorizes individuals into sixteen different personality types based on four dichotomies: extraversion (E) vs. introversion (I), sensing (S) vs. intuition (N), thinking (T) vs. feeling (F), and judging (J) vs. perceiving (P). The results will help you understand your communication style, decision-making process, and how you interact with the world.
  2. Reflect on the results: Once you receive your MBTI results, reflect on the insights provided. Consider how your personality type influences your behavior, motivations, and interactions with others.
  3. Explore your personality type: Embrace the opportunity to explore your personality type further. Learn about your type’s strengths and potential challenges, and how you can use this knowledge to improve your communication, relationships, and personal development.

The MBTI can be a valuable tool for enhancing self-awareness and fostering empathy towards others with different personality types. Whether in a romantic relationship or building relationships with friends and family, understanding your communication style is the first step toward meaningful conversations.

How to figure out your partner’s personality type

Understanding your partner’s personality can lead to deeper insights into their communication style, needs, and preferences, fostering a more harmonious and empathetic relationship. Here are some steps to figure out your partner’s personality type:

  1. Observe their behavior: Pay close attention to your partner’s behaviors, reactions, and decision-making processes. Notice how they respond to different situations, whether they enjoy social gatherings, prefer alone time, or focus on facts versus possibilities. These observations can offer clues about their personality preferences.
  2. Encourage open communication: Create a safe and supportive environment for open communication. Encourage your partner to share their thoughts, feelings, and perceptions. 14
  3. Consider personality assessments: If your partner is open to it, suggest taking a personality assessment together, such as the MBTI. Discussing the results can be fun and enlightening, deepening your mutual understanding and appreciation of each other’s uniqueness.
  4. Ask thoughtful questions: Engage in meaningful conversations and ask thoughtful questions that reveal insights into their personality. Inquire about their passions, values, and long-term goals. This can help you grasp their personality type and their defining qualities.
  5. Be patient: Remember that discovering your partner’s personality type is gradual. Respect their boundaries and allow them to reveal their preferences in their own time. Avoid making assumptions or labeling them based on limited observations.

Knowing and understanding your partner’s personality can add depth to your relationship. With the right approach, you can create a safe and supportive environment that encourages them to open up about their true self, allowing for more meaningful conversations and connections.

Tips on how to handle different personalities

Handling different personalities in various aspects of life, including romantic relationships, friendships, and work environments, requires a blend of understanding, adaptability, and effective communication. Here are some valuable tips to navigate interactions with diverse personalities:

  1. Practice empathy: Put yourself in the other person’s shoes and try understanding their perspective and emotions. Empathy allows you to build rapport and create a more compassionate and supportive environment. 15
  2. Respect differences: Appreciate that each person has unique strengths, weaknesses, and preferences. Respect and embrace these differences, as they contribute to the richness of human interactions.
  3. Focus on common ground: Identify shared interests or goals that can serve as a foundation for understanding and collaboration. Highlighting common ground can bridge gaps between different personalities.
  4. Be flexible: Adapt your approach and communication style based on the situation and the personality you’re engaging with. Flexibility allows you to connect more effectively with different individuals.
  5. Appreciate diversity: Embrace the diversity of personalities around you, as it brings fresh perspectives and innovative ideas. A varied group can lead to more creative and well-rounded outcomes.
  6. Continuously learn and grow: Keep an open mind and be willing to learn from different personalities. Personal growth is a lifelong journey that benefits from exposure to various experiences and people.

There’s nothing wrong with having different personalities; variety enriches our lives. Make sure to approach interactions with an open heart and mind and be willing to learn from each other for a more harmonious relationship.

3. Our attachment style

The way you were treated in childhood also plays a role in how you form relationships with others. Attachment theory studies how people relate to one another and explores the nature of lasting and meaningful connections.

This theory suggests that our attachment style is based on our childhood experiences, so it affects our behavior in all types of relationships, including romantic ones.

There are four attachment styles – secure, anxious, avoidant, and disorganized.

  1. Secure: People who are securely attached are comfortable with intimacy and closeness; they form trusting relationships easily.
  2. Anxious: People with an anxious attachment style struggle to maintain emotional closeness in relationships, often feeling insecure or worried about being abandoned.
  3. Avoidant: These individuals prefer to remain independent and avoid close connections, as their self-protective tendency makes it hard to trust others.
  4. Disorganized: Those with a disorganized attachment style are confused about their feelings and often struggle to maintain consistent relationships.

These four attachment styles can provide valuable insights into how we interact with others and what relationships we prefer. Knowing your attachment style can also help you understand why you respond to certain situations the way you do and how you can better regulate your emotions.

How to find out your attachment style

Discovering your attachment style is a valuable step towards understanding how you form and maintain emotional connections with others, including romantic partners, friends, and family. Here’s a guide to help you find out your attachment style:

  1. Reflect on past relationships: Reflect on your relationships, particularly with primary caregivers or significant others. Consider how you felt and responded in moments of closeness and distance.
  2. Take attachment style quizzes: Several online quizzes and self-assessment tools are available to help you identify your attachment style. These quizzes are typically based on attachment theory, classifying individuals into four main styles: secure, anxious, avoidant, and fearful-avoidant.
  3. Seek professional guidance: If you find it challenging to pinpoint your attachment style or want a more in-depth analysis, consider seeking the help of a therapist or counselor experienced in attachment theory. They can offer personalized insights and guide you through your attachment journey.
  4. Discuss with trusted individuals: Engage in conversations with close friends or family members who know you well. Sometimes, others can provide valuable observations about your behavior and attachment tendencies that you may not be fully aware of.

Taking the time to understand your attachment style is essential for developing healthier relationships. By recognizing how you tend to form attachments, you can become more mindful and better prepared to handle the challenges of romantic relationships.

How to figure out your partner’s attachment style

Understanding your partner’s attachment style can provide valuable insights into their emotional needs, communication patterns, and behavior within the relationship. Here are some steps to help you figure out your partner’s attachment style:

  1. Observe their reactions: How your partner responds to closeness and emotional intimacy. Notice their reactions during moments of vulnerability or when space is needed. Observe whether they seek reassurance or tend to withdraw during times of stress.
  2. Identify relationship patterns: Look for recurring themes or patterns in your partner’s behavior and communication. Identifying consistent responses to specific situations may provide clues about their attachment style.
  3. Educate yourselves together: Read about attachment theory and attachment styles together. Discuss what you learn and share your thoughts and observations about how the concepts may apply to your relationship.
  4. Take attachment style quizzes: Suggest taking attachment style quizzes together. Comparing results and discussing the outcomes can facilitate a deeper understanding of each other’s attachment tendencies.
  5. Consider professional support: If your partner is open to it, attending couples therapy or seeking guidance from a relationship counselor specializing in attachment theory can offer valuable insights into your attachment styles and help improve your emotional bond.
  6. Be patient and non-judgmental: Understand that discovering attachment styles is a process that requires patience and sensitivity. Avoid making assumptions or labeling your partner based on limited observations.

Your partner’s attachment style will likely differ from yours, and that’s a good thing! Recognizing each other’s tendencies can promote better communication and healthier relationships.

Discover your attachment style for happier relationships. Learn how the 4 styles influence communication and bonding in love.

Tips on how to handle different attachment styles

Knowing how to handle different attachment styles is essential for building and maintaining healthy relationships. Here are some tips on how to do this:

  1. Listen without judgment: Validate your partner’s feelings by listening openly and accepting their perspective. This helps create a safe space to express themselves without fear of criticism or invalidation.
  2. Be transparent: Share your thoughts and feelings honestly and openly with your partner. This helps build trust and encourages them to do the same, promoting a deeper emotional connection between you.
  3. Respect boundaries: Everyone is unique; respect your partner’s needs without imposing your desires or expectations on them. Respect boundaries when it comes to physical closeness and emotional intimacy.
  4. Practice self-awareness: Know your attachment style and know how it affects your interactions with others. This will help you to be mindful of your communication patterns and behavior within the relationship.
  5. Offer support: Showing empathy and providing support during difficult moments is a great way to strengthen relationships regardless of one’s attachment style. Encourage your partner to talk and be there for them during distress or discomfort. 16

Of course, the dynamics of any relationship are complex and require ongoing effort. However, by understanding your attachment styles and how to handle them, you can create a more secure bond with your partner that’s built on trust, respect, and unconditional love.

4. Our love language

Love language is the way how we express and want to receive love. It indicates how we want to receive affection and what gestures matter most to us.

Knowing your partner’s love language can help you appreciate and understand how they feel loved in the relationship. Here are some of the five primary love languages:

  1. Words of affirmation: Expressing gratitude, compliments, and encouragement to your partner using verbal words.
  2. Quality time: Spending quality one-on-one time together engaging in meaningful activities or conversation that demonstrates your full attention and presence.
  3. Receiving gifts: Showing appreciation for your partner through the thoughtful act of giving gifts.
  4. Acts of service: Doing tasks that show your partner you care, such as helping out around the house or running errands for them.
  5. Physical touch: Expressing love through physical contact and gestures like hugs, kisses, holding hands, etc.

These five love languages is a helpful tool to better understand and connect with your partner. Taking the time to figure out how you both prefer to receive love and showing appreciation in the way that matters most can greatly strengthen emotional bonds.

How to find out your love language

Discovering your love language can profoundly impact your relationships by helping you understand how you express and receive love. To identify your love language, follow these steps:

  1. Self-reflection: Reflect on how you naturally show love to others. Do you often offer words of affirmation, enjoy giving thoughtful gifts, or prioritize quality time together? Consider how you feel most loved when others express their affection towards you.
  2. Take the love language quiz: Dr. Gary Chapman’s official Love Language Quiz is available online. Answer a series of questions about your preferences in receiving love, and the quiz will reveal your primary love language.
  3. Observe reactions to expressions of love: Pay attention to how you respond emotionally to different expressions of love from your partner or loved ones. Notice which gestures or actions make you feel the most cherished and connected.
  4. Discuss with your partner: Share your love language discovery with them and encourage them to do the same. Openly communicating your preferences can lead to more fulfilling and loving interactions.
  5. Observe patterns in past relationships: Reflect on your relationships and how your love language affected their dynamics. This can clarify your preferred way of giving and receiving love.

Understanding and expressing love in a way that resonates with you and your partner is key to sustaining any intimate relationship. Learning about each other’s love languages is a great place to start when building a secure, meaningful bond.

How to figure out your partner’s love language

Once you’ve identified your love language, figuring out how your partner receives and expresses love is important. Here are some tips on how to do this:

  1. Watch for cues: Pay attention to the words, gestures, and behaviors that appear when they express affection towards you. This can help shed light on what matters most to them.
  2. Make a note of their preferences: Jot down your observations and take mental notes of your partner’s reactions when you do different things for them. This can help form a better understanding of their love language.
  3. Ask questions: Invite open dialogue with your partner about how they like to be shown love and what makes them feel the most loved. Encouraging honest communication will help to uncover their love language.
  4. Listen with an open heart: Allow your partner to express their feelings without judgment or criticism. Listening attentively is a loving gesture that can help build trust in the relationship.
  5. Consider their past relationships: Reflect on how they’ve acted in previous relationships and what expressions of love made them feel the most connected. This could reveal clues about their love language.

Showing love in a way that resonates with your partner is essential for any relationship to flourish. Knowing their love language can help you communicate and connect more deeply, allowing for more meaningful interactions.

Decode the language of love! Learn about the 5 love languages and their impact on romantic connections.

Tips on how to handle different love language

Not all love languages are equal, and the dynamics of relationships can change over time. Here are some tips on how to handle different love language needs:

  1. Respect differences: It is essential to recognize that you and your partner may have different ways of expressing and receiving love. Try not to impose your preferences or judge them for theirs.
  2. Offer reassurance: If your partner expresses insecurities or doubts, offer words of affirmation and support. Let them know that they are loved unconditionally.
  3. Talk it out: If you struggle with different love language needs, try communicating openly about it and finding a compromise. This can help build long-term understanding and trust between the two of you.
  4. Make an effort: Show your appreciation by doing activities that demonstrate your partner’s love language. This can help them feel supported and understood in the relationship.
  5. Prioritize connection: No matter what, be sure to maintain a strong emotional bond and take the time to nurture it every day by engaging in meaningful conversations and activities.

Love looks different for everyone, but a way to express it that resonates with you and your partner is essential. Being mindful of each other’s love language needs can help create an emotionally secure relationship and foster feelings of connection.


Must-read queer books to add to your reading list

Queerness is often left out of the mainstream conversation, but that doesn't mean it doesn't exist. If you're looking for a crash course on queer history, literature, and culture, look no further than this list of must-read queer books. From novels to memoirs to anthologies, these books will give you a much-needed education and insight on LGBTQ+ lives and experiences that are often overlooked or ignored.

  1. Queer Cosmos: The Astrology of Queer Identities & Relationships
  2. Gay Dating, your guide to finding love: The essential read for every gay man
  3. Beyond Monogamy: Polyamory and the Future of Polyqueer Sexualities
  4. Delusions of Gender: How Our Minds, Society, and Neurosexism Create Difference
  5. Helping Gay Men Find Love: Tips for Guys on Dating and Beginning a Healthy Relationship

References

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  2. Gable, S. L., Reis, H. T., Impett, E. A., & Asher, E. R. (2018). What do you do when things go right? The intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits of sharing positive events. In Relationships, well-being and behaviour (pp. 144-182). Routledge.
  3. Crowley, A. K. (2010). The relationship of adult attachment style and interactive conflict styles to marital satisfaction (Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University).
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  5. Debnam, K. J., Howard, D. E., & Garza, M. A. (2014). If you don't have honesty in a relationship, then there is no relationship: African American girls' characterization of healthy dating relationships, a qualitative study. The journal of primary prevention, 35(6), 397–407.
  6. Simpson, J. A. (2007). Psychological foundations of trust. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(5), 264–268.
  7. Grebe, N. M., Kristoffersen, A. A., Grøntvedt, T. V., Emery Thompson, M., Kennair, L. E. O., & Gangestad, S. W. (2017). Oxytocin and vulnerable romantic relationships. Hormones and behavior, 90, 64–74.
  8. Gurman, A. S. (2008). A framework for the comparative study of couple therapy. In Alan S Gurman (Ed.), Clinical handbook of couple therapy (4th ed., pp. 1-30). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  9. Crowley, A. K. (2006). The relationship of adult attachment style and interactive conflict styles to marital satisfaction (Master's dissertation). Texas AandM University, Houston, TX, United States.
  10. Reese-Weber, M., & Bartle-Haring, S. (1998). Conflict Resolution Styles in Family Subsystems and Adolescent Romantic Relationships. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27(6), 735–752.
  11. Mostova, O., Stolarski, M., & Matthews, G. (2022). I love the way you love me: Responding to partner's love language preferences boosts satisfaction in romantic heterosexual couples. PloS one, 17(6), e0269429. doi.org
  12. Weger, H., Bell, G. C., Minei, E., & Robinson, M. J. (2014). The Relative Effectiveness of Active Listening in Initial Interactions. International Journal of Listening, 28(1), 13–31. doi.org
  13. Lantagne, A., Furman, W., & Novak, J. (2017). Stay or Leave: Predictors of Relationship Dissolution in Emerging Adulthood. Emerging adulthood (Print), 5(4), 241–250.
  14. Zhou, Y., Wang, K., Chen, S., Zhang, J., & Zhou, M. (2017). An Exploratory Investigation of the Role of Openness in Relationship Quality among Emerging Adult Chinese Couples. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 382.
  15. Brown, C. L., West, T. V., Sanchez, A. H., & Mendes, W. B. (2021). Emotional Empathy in the Social Regulation of Distress: A Dyadic Approach. Personality & social psychology bulletin, 47(6), 1004–1019.
  16. Szwedo, D. E., Hessel, E. T., & Allen, J. P. (2016). Supportive Romantic Relationships as Predictors of Resilience Against Early Adolescent Maternal Negativity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(2), 454–465.
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Relationship Expert

Amy Clark

Amy Clark is a freelance writer who writes about relationships, marriage, and family. She has been happily married for over ten years and loves her husband and three kids. Before …

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